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Briefly explain the development of optical fiber



Optical fiber is a medium that transmits information from one end to the other. It is a piece of glass or plastic fiber that acts as a transmission medium for information to pass through.

Usually the terms "optical fiber" and "optical cable" are confused. Most optical fibers must be covered with several layers of protective structures before use. The coated cable is called "optical cable". The protective structure of the outer layer of the optical fiber can Prevent the damage of the optical fiber from the surrounding environment, such as water, fire, electric shock, etc. The optical cable is divided into: optical fiber, buffer layer and coating. Optical fiber is similar to coaxial cable, but there is no mesh shielding layer. At the center is the glass core where light travels. In a multimode optical fiber, the diameter of the core is 15 μm to 50 μm, which is roughly equivalent to the thickness of a human hair. The diameter of the single-mode fiber core is 8 μm~10 μm. The core is surrounded by a glass envelope with a lower index of refraction than the core to keep the fiber within the core. On the outside is a thin plastic jacket that protects the envelope. Optical fibers are usually bundled and protected by a jacket. The fiber core is usually a double-layer concentric cylinder made of quartz glass with a small cross-sectional area, which is brittle and easy to break, so an external protective layer is required.

Characteristics of Optical Fiber

Since optical fiber is a transmission medium, it can transmit data such as telephone calls or computer data like ordinary copper cables. The difference is that optical fibers transmit optical signals instead of electrical signals. Therefore, optical fibers have many unique advantages.

Such as: wide bandwidth. low loss. shielding electromagnetic radiation. light weight. security. privacy.

Operation of Fiber Optic Systems

You may know that the process of any communication transmission includes: encoding → transmission → decoding. Of course, the transmission process of the optical fiber system is roughly the same. After the electronic signal is input, the signal is digitally encoded through the transmitter and becomes an optical signal. The medium is sent to the receiver at the other end, and the receiver decodes the signal and restores it to the original electronic signal output.

The use of fiber optic cables

The application of optical cable can be divided into 3 types: professional use, general outdoor, general indoor. In professional use, it includes submarine optical cable, aerial optical cable on high-voltage tower, anti-radiation optical cable in nuclear power plant, anti-corrosion in chemical industry Optical cables, etc. And the classification difference between general indoor and general outdoor, according to the characteristics of each type of optical cable according to the characteristics of manufacturing and design, its applicable scope is different.